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Extending GraphQL Schemas with Custom Scalars

Oct 27, 2023

GraphQL Architecture

Scalars in GraphQL are how we define leaf nodes in our responses will be resolved. Out of the box, GraphQL provides the following types:

  • Int: signed 32-bit integer
  • Float: signed double-precision floating point value
  • String: UTF-8 character sequence
  • Boolean: true or false
  • ID: unique identifier serialized as a string

These are sufficient for providing any data interface layer, but they don’t always tell us about details about the data itself. This is where custom scalars come in.

What are Custom Scalars?

Custom Scalars allow us to create more explicit rules for leaf node data. For example, let’s say we’re trying to track inventory for an item in our store’s inventory management system. Out of the box, we’d probably define our schema as follows:

type Product {
	"Unique product identifier - UUID format"
	id: ID!
	"Product's display name"
	name: String!
	"How many of this item do we have in stock"
	itemsInStock: Int!

At a first glance, you can tell that itemsInStock is a number. When we start to think about this from a real world perspective though, the Int type allows us to set itemsInStock to a negative number but this doesn’t make since and should not be allowed in our API. This is where custom scalars step in. We can define a new scalar called NonNegativeInt and define it to only allow for a value of 0 or more. This gives our API more depth and further clarifies the data of these fields.

This can be for more than just numbers. We can do custom string or date types. In my example above, I stated in the doc string that the ID field would be a UUID type. UUID has a defined structure that we can validate. So I can also create a UUID type and now, my schema can be redefined to be:

type Product {
	"Unique product identifier"
	id: UUID!
	"Product's display name"
	name: String!
	"How many of this item do we have in stock"
	itemsInStock: NonNegativeInt!

This is much clearer to consumers and allows them to more strongly model their data. So how do I create a custom scalar?

Creating Custom Scalars

Custom scalars, like other type definitions, require 2 things: (1) the type definition and (2) the resolver. For the type definition, it’s as simple as in your SDL exporting a name using the scalar keyword. Using our NonNegativeInt example, we would do the following:

scalar NonNegativeInt

This gives us the scalar but doesn’t define how it works. This is where the resolver comes in. The resolver is defined differently than other GraphQL resolvers and needs to be defined using the GraphQLScalarType class from the graphql library and then then included into our server configuration. This code looks like:

export const NonNegativeIntResolver = new GraphQLScalarType({
	name: 'NonNegativeInt',
	description: 'Integers that will have a value of 0 or more.',
	serialize(value) {
		return processValue(value);
	parseValue(value) {
		return processValue(value);
	parseLiteral(ast) {
		if (ast.kind !== Kind.INT) {
			throw createGraphQLError(
				`Can only validate integers as non-negative integers but got a: ${ast.kind}`,
					nodes: ast,
		return processValue(ast.value, 'NonNegativeInt');

function processValue(value) {
	const parsedValued = parseInt(value, 10);
	if (!Number.isInteger(parsedValued)) {
		throw createGraphQLError(`Value is not an integer: ${parsedValued}`);
	if (parsedValued < 0) {
		throw createGraphQLError(`${parsedValue} is less than 0`);
	return parsedValue;

Let’s break this down to understand the different pieces. First, we have the name field which is the display name for this scalar type. It should match the scalar type we defined in our SDL. The description is our documentation for the type that will appear in our schema explorer when we look deeper. Then we have 3 key functions: serialize, parseValue, and parseLiteral that are required for every scalar type definition.

serialize takes the value provided by our backend and coerces it into a JSON-compatible format so it can appear in the response. So looking at our example, if the value is passed into our GraphQL as '1', serialize will coerce it into the integer value 1 making it compatible with our schema and with JSON.

parseValue is for handling inbound data from the frontend and making it valid on the backend. This is how resolver arguments get parsed on the server. So again looking at our example, if we provided a valid encoded integer as an integer or string to the server, the server could parse that value for the server to use and process.

parseLiteral takes hard-coded values from an operation document’s abstract syntax tree (AST) and handles parsing it as validation. So in our example, if we ran an operation like:

query MyQuery {
	products(itemsInStock: "1") {

the parseLiteral function would receive an AST node with kind of Kind.STRING and value "1". This is not valid with our function because we’re expecting the kind to be Kind.INT and so this isn’t a valid value.

As you can see, we also created a processValue function that parsed and validated our value that was reusable in all 3 functions. This example allowed for reusability but other cases, like a Date scalar, might require different validation and steps. You should check out the example in the Apollo docs for how they dealt with that specific case.


We now know how to enhance our API schema using custom scalars and how we can create them. Before we go though, The Guild has made an awesome library of reusable scalars called graphql-scalars. This library has over 50 commonly used custom scalars. When you’re first building your GraphQL API, I strongly recommend and encourage you to start with these scalars rather than building your own. Eventually, you may find you want to build your own to handle localization or handle certain cases slightly differently and that’s okay! But, when you’re first starting out to build your schema, it’s faster to just borrow these.

Also, not all scalar types need this much validation. These are a tool to help for well-defined, well-structured scalar types. If you’re just looking to validate the values of a field, I’d recommend just writing validation code into your resolver and adding a docstring comment on the field so people understand what’s expected for that field.